Arguments with Her Husband

Arguments with Her Husband

The Muslim woman should be wise in her dealings with her husband, because man – usually – is pleased with kind words and appreciates kind treatment.  So if that comes from his life-partner, that will have a greater effect. The wise woman must also keep away from all kinds of behaviour that will offend her husband, and rid herself of every kind of action that annoys him, and try not to control him. The man has the role of qawwaam (protector and maintainer), and the responsibility is his. Making him feel that he is falling short in certain situations may make him angry and not treat his wife well. One of them said:“The best wife is the one who knows how to create harmony in her marriage and strikes a balance between obeying and respecting her husband and expressing her own strong personality.”

Your speaking to people on his behalf – because he does not speak your people’s language well – is permissible according to sharee’ah, but as stated above, you have to be wise in doing this. When doing these things you should not make him feel that he is lacking or that he is not important. Rather you should refer to him when speaking to the people, and consult with him, and do not make decisions in his presence without asking his permission. You should do that in front of the people to whom you are speaking so that he will feel that he is important. Try to make him feel that he speaks his own language better than you do, and that you complement one another; and you can help him to learn your language, and he can help you to learn his language.

This is what we advise you to do, and this is what may reduce his anger and stop him from behaving in this manner. It seems that it is only a matter of time, and you have to be careful in handling this situation until he becomes more fluent in your language and is able to do things himself, on his own.

Secondly:

In order to become a good wife, you have to learn what Allaah has enjoined upon you, so that you can do it. You have to know how righteous women behave, their attitude and the way they interact with their husbands. You will need to strive hard until you get used to it, but it is not impossible. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:“Knowledge comes by learning, and patience comes by trying to be patient. Whoever seeks goodness will be given it, and whoever fears evil will be protected from it.” Narrated by al-Daaraqutni in al-Afraad; this is a hasan hadeet, as was stated by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 2328.

Some of these characteristics and attitudes are those of which a wise mother  advised her daughter before marriage, which is comprehensive advice. We ask Allaah to help you to achieve this. That mother said to her daughter:

“O my daughter, you are leaving your house in which you grew up, and going to live with a man whom you do not know, a companion whom you are unfamiliar with. Be like a slave woman to him and he will be like a slave to you. Remember ten characteristics which will be a stored treasure for you:

The first and second are to be devoted to him and be content, listen to him and obey.

The third and the fourth are to consider his nose and eyes; do not let him see anything ugly of you, or let him smell anything but a good fragrance.

The fifth and the sixth are consider the time of his sleeping and eating, for hunger burns and disturbance of sleep causes anger.

The seventh and the eighth are to look after his wealth and to take care of his family and his dependents.

The ninth and the tenth are to look after his wealth and take care of his dependents.”

Thirdly:

The husband has to fear Allaah his Lord, and not transgress the rights of his wife. He should give her her rights as Allaah has enjoined upon him. He should realize that people vary, and that what he knows, many people are ignorant of, and what he is ignorant of, many people know.  For him to have a wife who will translate for him and show him what will benefit him and how things are done is better for him than having someone with him whom he cannot trust. Knowledge can only be acquired by learning, and the way to learn is by striving and working hard.

Advise him to try to control himself at times of anger, and not to get angry unless you have transgressed one of the sacred limits of Allaah. This is the kind of anger that is regarded as praiseworthy.

And Allaah knows best.

 

Affection and Compassion Between Spouses

Affection and Compassion Between Spouses

One of the greatest aims of marriage according to the laws of Allaah is so that affection and compassion may prevail between the spouses. This is the foundation on which married life should be built. Allaah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.” [al-Room 30:21]

al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Affection means love, and compassion means kindness. A man keeps a woman either because he loves her or her because he feels compassion towards her because he has children from her.

Our advice to you is not to ignore the affection and compassion between spouses that Allaah has mentioned in this verse. Think about the Mothers of the Believers, and the womenfolk of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them all), especially the role of Khadeejah (may Allaah be pleased with her) with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Try to make your family happy and you will see the effect of that in sha Allaah.

One of the greatest means of attaining happiness and cheerfulness is what was narrated from one of the righteous: Kindness is something easy: a cheerful face and a gentle word. So try to adopt this kindness towards your husband – until it becomes ingrained in you – and you will win his heart and make him be affectionate and compassionate towards you.

But before all that, and above all that, our Lord says (interpretation of the meaning):

“The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (the evil) with one which is better (i.e. Allaah orders the faithful believers to be patient at the time of anger, and to excuse those who treat them badly) then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend.

But none is granted it (the above quality) except those who are patient — and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of happiness in the Hereafter, i.e., Paradise and of a high moral character) in this world.” [Fussilat 41:34-35]

Shaykh Ibn Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: i.e., Good deeds and acts of obedience that are done for the sake of Allaah cannot be equal to bad deeds and sins that earn His wrath and do not please Him. Kindness towards others cannot be equal to mistreatment of them. “Is there any reward for good other than good?.” [al-Rahmaan 55:60]

Then He enjoins a specific type of kindness which has a great impact, which is kindness towards the one who treats you badly. He says: “Repel (the evil) with one which is better” i.e., if someone mistreats you, especially if he has great rights over you, such as relatives and friends and the like, and he mistreats you in word or in deed, then respond by treating him kindly. If he cuts off ties with you then uphold ties with him; if he wrongs you, forgive him; if he speaks against you, in your absence or in your presence, do not respond in kind, rather forgive him, and deal with him by speaking kindly; if he shuns you and does not speak to you, then speak nicely to him, and greet him with salaam. If you respond to mistreatment with kind treatment, that will do a great deal of good.

“then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend” i.e., as if he is close to you and a good  friend.

“But none is granted it” i.e., this praiseworthy quality is not given to anyone “except those who are patient” and put up with what they dislike, and force themselves to do what Allaah loves, for souls are created with a natural inclination to respond to bad treatment in kind and not to forgive it, so how can they respond in a good manner?

If a person is patient and obeys the command of his Lord, and understands the great reward, and knows that responding in kind to the one who mistreats him will not achieve anything and will only make the enmity worse, and that treating him kindly will not cause him any humiliation, rather it will raise him in status, because the one who shows humility for the sake of Allaah, Allaah will raise him in status thereby, then the matter will become easy for him and he will do that with joy and pleasure.

“and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion” because this is a characteristic of the elite people, by means of which a person attains a high status in this world and in the Hereafter, which is one of the greatest and noblest of characteristics. End quote.

Tafseer al-Sa’di (549-550)

If all of this applies to the rights of people in general, then what about the rights of your wife? The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If I were to order anyone to prostrate to anyone else, I would have ordered women to prostrate to their husbands, because of the rights that Allaah has given them over them.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (2140) and al-Tirmidhi (1192); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (1203).

We have started by speaking to you, because you are the one who asked the question, and we think that you are more likely to listen and respond to our advice. If that means giving up some of your rights and forgiving the one who has wronged you, then there is nothing wrong with that. Who can say that giving up some of one’s rights or forgiving some mistreatment is shameful or a shortcoming? Rather it is perfection.

Muslim narrated in his Saheeh (2588) from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Charity does not decrease wealth. No one forgives, but Allaah increases him in honour, and no one humbles himself before Allaah but Allaah raises him in status.”

As for speaking to your husband or rebuking him, it is words of sincere advice and a rebuke from those who love good for him and fear for the bad consequences that he may face as a result of his actions; they want to warn him against obeying Iblees and making him happy, and disobeying and incurring the wrath of the Most Merciful, may He be exalted.

As for his obeying Ibleese, Muslim narrated in his Saheeh (2813) that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Iblees places his throne over the water, then he sends out his troops, and the one who is closest in status to him is the one who causes the greatest amount of fitnah (tribulation or temptation). One of them comes and says, I have done such and such, and he says: ‘You have not done anything.’ Then one of them comes and says: ‘I did not leave him until I separated him and his wife.’ Then he draws him close to him and says: ‘How good you are.’” Al-A’mash said: I think he said: “and he embraces him.”

As for his incurring the wrath of the Most Merciful and disobeying Him, let him listen to what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Fear Allaah with regard to women, for you have taken them as a trust from Allaah, and intimacy with them has become permissible to you by the word of Allaah.” Narrated by Muslim (1218)

Is this how you take a trust from Allaah, O slave of Allaah?!

Is this how you deal with the word of Allaah, O slave of Allaah?!

Is this how you respond to the advice of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who said: “I urge you to treat women well”(narrated by al-Bukhaari (3331) and Muslim (1468))

And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The best of you is the one who is best to his wife, and I am the best of you to my wives.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (3895) and Ibn Majaah (1977); classed as aheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.

Or is this what living with them honourably means? Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “and live with them honourably.” [al-Nisa' 4:19]

Is this what taking care of them means? The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock. The ruler of the people is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock. A man is the shepherd of his household and is responsible for his flock. A woman is the shepherd of her husband’s house and children and is responsible for her flock. The slave is the shepherd of his master’s wealth and is responsible for it. Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (893) and Muslim (1829)

Have you not heard what the great Sahaabi, ‘Aa’idh ibn ‘Amr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said when he entered upon ‘Ubayd-Allaah ibn Ziyaad, the oppressive governor? The Sahaabi said to him: O my son, I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “The worst of guardians are those who are cruel. Beware lest you be one of them.” Narrated by Muslim (1830)

Are you not afraid that you may be one of them?

Have you never heard that everyone gets headaches sometimes.

We have never heard of anything stranger or weirder than this.

Or perhaps you need some proof? Listen to this, O slave of Allaah:

It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came back from al-Baqee’ and I had a headache and was saying, Oh my head. He said, “Rather, I should say, Oh my head, O ‘Aa’ishah.” Narrated by Ibn Majaah (1465); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Takhreej al-Mishkaat (5970)

You should remember that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died, ‘Aa’ishah was eighteen years old, which means that when she complained of this headache she was younger than eighteen, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) believed her and treated her with compassion. ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) was asked: What did the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) do in his house? She said: He used to serve his family, then when the time for prayer came, he would go out to pray. Narrated by al-Bukhaari (676)

This is evidence if you need it, but we do not think that you need evidence. Rather you need to act. The way is ahead of you but you are not moving.

We have spoken to you at length, but if a person does not benefit from a little then he will not benefit from a lot.

You should think that you may be afflicted one day and you will need this weak woman to support you and look after your affairs. Would you like her to treat you as you are treating her?

Or would you like her to be better than you, and to believe you, although you did not believe her, and to support you, although you let her down, and to treat you kindly although you are treating her harshly, and to be forbearing towards you although you are treating her ignorantly.

By Allaah, even the sweeter of the two is bitter.

 

The Importance and Merit of Making Dua

The Importance and Merit of Making Dua

Allah Almighty says in the Qur’an:

“When my servants ask you concerning me, (tell them) I am indeed close (to them). I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calls on me.” [2:186]

The place of duaa is so high to Allah, that the Prophet had said: “Nothing is more honourable to Allah the Most High than du`a.” [Sahih al-Jami` no.5268].

He also said: “The most excellent worship is du`a.” [Sahih Al-Jami` no. 1133];

and in order to warn those who are arogant, or careless in making duaa, the Prophet said: “The most incapable person is the one who does not make du`a, and the most miserly person is the one who does not give salaam.” [Sahih Al-Jami` no. 1055],

and further, said: “If one does not ask Allah, He will get angry with him.” [Sahih al-Jami` no.2414]

Allah is the Glorious and the Mighty, the answerer of every person in need and every person with a request. Indeed Allah is free of all wants, and He is answerable to non. We have no other god, but Him, whilst He has many servants other than us. Indeed Allah has revealed:

“O mankind! It is you who stand in need of Allah, but Allah is Rich (Free of all wants and needs), Worthy of All Praise.” [Qur'an 35:15]

So to fulfill our needs and wants, we must call on Him. Making Du’a to Allah, is a recognition of our weakness and His greatness. The Prophet had said: “Ask Allah for everything, even the lace of your shoes. If Allah does not provide, it will never be available.” [Ibn al-Sunni, no. 349 - hasan. Supported by at-Tirmidhi 4/298 and others.]

And let not there be anyone who says: “… my Lord won’t answer my prayer, because of this and that.. or because of so and so..”. No! Indeed Allah is the Most Generous King. Is there anyone who met a king, and praised and glorified him, and then asked, yet the request was not granted? So what about Allah, the King of the Heavens and the Earth – who has total control over your life, your wealth and your future. Why would He not grant you your request?

Indeed, our beloved Prophet had said: “Verily your Lord is the One modest and Generous, and when His servant raises his hands to Him in supplication, He is diffident (in some wordings, shy or hesitant) from returning them empty.” [Ahmad, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi - Hasan]

[Hadith checking from Sheikh Hussain al-'Awayishah's "Kitab ad-Dua". An english translation has been published by JIMAS.]

 

 

The Day We Lost Our Masjid

The Day We Lost Our Masjid

Do you know the last public place where the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam was seen? He was seen in the Masjid. About 3 days before he passed away, Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu was leading the prayer and the Masjid was full with an ummah of men and women prepared to illuminate the world with their jihaad and da’wah. The Prophet’s house opened up to the Masjid; there was a curtain separating his room and the prayer hall. He opened the curtain, saw the congregation, and saw his khalifah, Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu, leading the prayer. The Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam smiled like the moon. The companions saw him while they were in prayer, and from their happiness, almost lost control of the prayer. The Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam then drew his curtain, and three days later returned to his Lord subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala.

During the life of the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam, there was a woman who used to sweep the Masjid with her hands, picking up the dirt and disposing of it. In the sight of the community her status was not that high, but in the sight of Allah and her Messenger sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam, she held a different rank. She passed away one night and the Companions, not wanting to disturb the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam, washed and buried her without informing him. The next day, the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam recognized her absence and inquired about her. They told him about her demise and how they had not wanted to disturb him. The Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam was not happy at the action they took. He went to her grave and prayed for her there.

What is a masjid? Many have misunderstood the role that the masjid plays in the development of the community. In some countries, it is a place where the tribal Imam is buried and worshipped. In other countries, it is a place that only prayers may be performed therein; absolutely nothing else will be tolerated. And in yet other countries, not even prayers are performed in it, so-much-so the country may finally decide to convert it into a museum or a church.

Dear brothers and sisters, I would like to introduce you to our friend, the masjid:

In the literal term, masjid means a place of prostration. However, in the technical sense, a masjid is any clean place on earth, as the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“The earth was made for me a Masjid (i.e. a place to pray), pure.” [Bukhari]

However, a specific place was attributed to the word masjid (the place where the 5 daily prayers are held). This was done in order to distinguish the masjid from the musallah (the place where Eid prayers are held and so forth, so that the rules of the masjid do not apply to it).

Masjid is a word derived from sujood, or prostration. The masjid, or place of prostration, was named such due the honorable position the sujood holds in salah. Thus, it was not called marka’ derived from ruku’.

The first house of Allah ever built on earth was the Ka’bah. Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala says:

“Verily, the first House [of worship] appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-Aalameen.” [A’le-Imran 3/96]

And Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala commanded us to honor and enliven the masjid with His remembrance:

“In houses (masajid), which Allah has ordered to be raised, in them His name is glorified in the mornings, and in the evenings.” [An-Noor 24/36]

Ibn Abbaas, Mujahid, and Al-Hasan commented: “The ‘houses’ are those masajid that were dedicated to the worship of Allah. And verily, the masajid light up the earth for the inhabitants of the heavens, just as stars light up the heavens for the inhabitants of the earth.”

Everyone wants to build a retirement home to be proud of, so listen to this offer. The Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever builds a masjid, seeking the pleasure of Allah, Allah shall build a house for him in Paradise.” [Bukhari]

He sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam also said:

“The most beloved places to Allah on earth are the masajid, and the most hated places to Allah on earth are the markets.” [Muslim]

The masjid has played a variety of roles in our history. Here is a short tour of some of the roles that the masjid has played:

Children: The masjid was a place where the children would accompany their parents and grow up under the shade of its walls. Abu Qataadah narrated:

“The Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam used to pray and carry Umamah, the daughter of Zaynab. When he would fall into prostration, he would rest her aside. And when he stood up again, he would again pick her up.” [Bukhari]

Education: The masjid was the nucleus of education. Throughout history, the masjid was the university that graduated scholars and imams. To name only a few, we have Masjid of Al-Azhar, Masjid Al-Umawee in Syria, and Masjid Az-Zaytoonah in Tunis.

The Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“No gathering gathers in a house from the houses of Allah, reciting the book of Allah and teaching it to one another, except that serenity befalls them, mercy envelops them, the angels surround them and Allah mentions them to (the inhabitants of the heavens).” [Muslim]

Organization: The masjid is where hundreds of Muslims come; all in straight rows; all following the lead of Allahu Akbar; all beginning when the imam begins; all ending when the imam ends.

Shelter for the weak and traveling: In Masjid An-Nabawi, we know that there was a platform, known as the Suffah. The poor and the strangers would find shelter there, and the Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam would grant them shares of the collected charity.

Socializing: The masjid is where the Muslims would meet one another. When someone missed a prayer, he was inquired about and followed up on. Relationships were reared, brotherhood was built.

Think tank: When important issues came up, the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam would gather the Companions in the masjid and consult them on the matter.

Charity: The charity would be collected and distributed from the masjid. It was in the masjid that the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“Give, if only with a half a date.”

Jihaad: It was from the masjid that battalions were organized and set off for jihaad. During the crusades, many masajid became the podium for inciting the feelings of the Muslims to fight off the transgression.

Serenity: Whenever the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam felt sad he would go and pray. And he sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam would say to Bilal, “Relax us with (the prayer) O Bilal.”

PART II: The Rights of the Masjid

The masjid is the house of Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala, and it has rights like anything else. Amongst these rights are the following:

First: When someone enters the masjid, they should pray 2 raka’ before sitting down. The Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“If any of you enters the masjid, let him not sit down until he prays 2 raka’.”

Second: No business should take place in the masjid. The Messenger of Allah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever sells in the masjid, say to them, ‘May Allah not grant success in your sale.’”

Third: The masjid must be kept clean and fresh smelling. The Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever eats from this tree (i.e. garlic) should not attend our place of prayer.”

Fourth: Advice should be given to fellow Muslims. When the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam would see someone not praying correctly he would advise them to repeat their prayer and teach them how to pray.

Fifth: Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala should be remembered much during one’s stay in the masjid. As Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala says:

“O ye who believe, remember Allah with much remembrance.” [Al-Ahzab 33/42]

And finally, Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala tells us of the kind of people that are recognized as the people of the masjid.

“In it are men that love to purify themselves, and Allah loves those who make themselves pure.” [At-Tauba 9/108]

May Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala give us the blessing of being amongst those that establish the masjid and are included amongst those whom Allah subhaanahu wa ta ‘aala loves.

 

 

 

 

Establish Islam in Yourselves

Establish Islam in Yourselves

What is required of every Muslim is to practise the religion of Allaah as much as he is able to. The imaamah (Islamic political leadership) has been prescribed for the purpose of establishing the religion of Allaah. No one should think that the fact that there is no imaam at any given time in any given country means that we can be negligent and introverted and not practise or establish any aspect of the religion.

Among the people of misguidance during this age and at other times there are those who say that we do not need to establish any of the symbols of Islam until a khaleefah has been appointed over the Muslims and the Islamic state has been established. This is one of the worst kinds of misguidance, and believing this leads to abandoning Jumu’ah prayers, prayer in jamaa’ah, Hajj, jihaad, collecting zakaah, prayer for rain (istisqaa’), Eid prayers, appointing imaams for mosques, calling the adhaan and other things, which amounts to cancelling the rulings of Islam. What do the people who say this have to say about the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can” [al-Taghaabun 64:16]

What do they have to say about the hadeeth, “Whatever I command you to do, do as much of it as you can.”

It is obligatory to take care of all matters of religion, starting with the most important, then the next most important, so we should study the religion of Allaah, the most important aspect of which is knowledge of the teaching of Tawheed, then establishing the symbols and rituals of Islam and the other duties. No doubt occupying oneself with these things is the most important thing, and each person should do everything that he is able to do. There cannot be an Islamic state without proper understanding of the religion and achieving eemaan (faith) and Tawheed, and ridding ourselves of shirk, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the land, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion which He has chosen for them (i.e. Islam). And He will surely, give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me.” [al-Noor 24:55]

The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stayed in Makkah for thirteen years, calling people to Allaah and teaching Tawheed and ‘Aqeedah, reciting the Revelation to them, debating to the kuffaar with in the best manner, bearing their persecution with patience, as well as praying and establishing the acts of worship which had been prescribed at that time. He did not forgo teaching the religion, although the Islamic state had not been established in Makkah at that time. Moreover, how can an Islamic state be established without an ideological foundation and a society of Muslims who been educated in the religion and have learned it thoroughly? He spoke the truth who said: Establish the Islamic state in yourselves, and it will be established for you in your land. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad.

 

 

 

Arabic

The Importance for Muslims to Learn Quranic Arabic


Allah Made it Easy

The Noble Qur’an: Ad-Dukhân 44:58
Certainly, We have made this (Qur’ân) easy in your tongue, in order that they may remember.

The Status of the Arabic Language in Islam

By: Shaykhul-Islaam Taqiyyud-Deen Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H)
As for becoming accustomed to talking to one another in a language other than Arabic, which is the symbol of Islaam and the language of the Qur‘aan, so that this becomes a habit in the land, with one’s family and household members, with one’s friends, in the marketplace, when addressing government representatives or authority figures or when speaking to people of knowledge, undoubtedly this is makrooh (disliked), because it involves being like the non-Arabs, which is makrooh, as stated previously.

Hence when the early Muslims went to live in Syria and Egypt, where the people spoke Byzantine Greek, and in ’Iraaq and Khurasaan, where the people spoke Persian, and North Africa (al-Maghrib) where the people spoke Berber, they taught the people of those countries to speak Arabic, so that Arabic became the prevalent language in those lands, and all the people, Muslim and kaafir alike, spoke Arabic. Such was also the case in Khurasaan in the past, then they became lax with regard to the language and got used to speaking Farsee until it became prevalent and Arabic was forgotten by most of them. Undoubtedly this is disliked.

The best way is to become accustomed to speaking Arabic so that the young people will learn it in their homes and schools, so that the symbol of Islaam and its people will prevail. This will make it easier for the people of Islaam to understand the Qur‘aan and Sunnah, and the words of the Salaf, unlike a person who gets used to speaking one language, then wants to learn another, and finds it difficult.

Know that being used to using a language has a clear and strong effect on one’s thinking, behaviour and religious commitment. It also has an effect on making one resemble the early generations of this Ummah, the Companions and the Taabi’een. Being like them improves one’s thinking, religious commitment and behaviour.

Moreover, the Arabic language itself is part of Islaam, and knowing Arabic is an obligatory duty. If it is a duty to understand the Qur‘aan and Sunnah, and they cannot be understood without knowing Arabic, then the means that is needed to fulfil the duty is also obligatory.

There are things which are obligatory on all individuals (fard ’ayn), and others which are obligatory on the community or Ummah (fard kifaayah, i.e., if some people fulfill them the rest are relieved of the obligation).

This is the meaning of the report narrated by Aboo Bakr Ibn Abee Shaybah who said: ’Eesa Ibn Yoonus told us from Thawr from ’Umar Ibn Yazeed that ’Umar wrote to Aboo Moosa al-Ash’aree () and said: “Learn the Sunnah and learn Arabic; learn the Qur‘aan in Arabic for it is Arabic.”

According to another hadeeth narrated from ’Umar (), he said: “Learn Arabic for it is part of your Religion, and learn how the estate of the deceased should be divided (faraa‘id) for these are part of your Religion.”

This command of ’Umar, to learn Arabic and the Sharee’ah combines the things that are needed, for Religion involves understanding words and actions. Understanding Arabic is the way to understand the words of Islaam, and understanding the Sunnah is the way to understand the actions of Islaam…” [1]

Footnotes:

[1] Iqtidaa‘us-Siraatil-Mustaqeem (2/207)



Supplications Examples to be Used in Every Day Situations

And remember your Lord by your tongue and within yourself,
humbly and with fear without loudness in words in the mornings, 
and in the afternoons and be not of those who are neglectful.

 

Surely, those who are with your Lord (angels)
are never too proud to perform acts of worship to Him,
but they glorify His Praise and prostrate before Him.

The Noble Qur’an – Al-A’raf 7:205-206

“Supplication is the pith of worship.”

Tirmidhi, Narrated Anas ibn Malik

 

“No one offers a supplication without Allah bringing him what he asks
or keeping away from him a like amount of evil,
provided he does not ask for something sinful or for breaking ties of relationship.

Tirmidhi, Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah

 

“If anyone finds pleasure in receiving an answer from Allah in times of difficulty,
he should make many supplications when times are easy.

Tirmidhi, Narrated AbuHurayrah, gharib tradition

 


Waking Up

Alhamdu lillahil-ladhi ahyaana ba’da ma amaatana wa ilaihin nushur.

Praise is to Allah Who bring us lifes after He has brought us death and unto Him is the return. [Abu Dawud 4/264, Ahmad 2/389]

Getting Dressed

Alhamdu lillahil-ladhi kasaani hadha (aththauba) wa razaqaneehi min ghairi haulim-minni wa la quwwatin.

Praise is to Allah who has clothed me with this (garment) and provided it for me, though I was powerless myself and incapable. [Bukhari, Muslim, Dawud, Ibn Majah, At-Tirmidhi]

Getting Undressed

Bismillah.

By/In the Name of Allah. [At-Tirmidhi 2/505]

Before Eating

Bismillah.

By/In the Name of Allah. [Ibn Majah 1/557, see also An-Nawawi, Kitabul Adhkar 4/342]
If you forgot to say the above before eating, then say the following as soon as you remember:

Click here to hear this du'a Bismilaahi ‘awwalihi wa aakhirihi.

In the Name of Allah, over the beginning of it and the end of it.

[Recorded by al-Tirmidhi, According to al-Hilaali, this hadith is sahih due to its supporting evidence. See al-Hilaali, vo. 2, pp. 580-581]

After Sneezing

 

The muslim who sneezed should immediately say:

Click here to hear this du'a Alhamdulillah

All praises and thanks are (due) to Allah.
The muslim who hears a sneezer say “Alhamdulillah” should then say:

Click here to hear this du'a Yar hamu-kAllah

May Allah have mercy upon you.
The original sneezer may then say:

Click here to hear this du'a Yahdeekumu-llaahu wa yuslihu baalakum.

May Allah guide you and set your affairs in order. [Bukhari 7/125]
When a disbeliever sneezes, the Muslim says:

Click here to hear this du'a Yahdeekumu-llaahu wa yuslihu baalakum.

May Allah guide you and set your affairs in order. [At-Tirmidhi 5/82, Ahmad 4/400, Dawud 4/308]

Before Entering the Toilet

[Bismillahi] Allahumma inna ‘audhu bika minal khubthi wal khabaa’ith.

[By the Name of Allah]. Oh Allah, I seek protection in You from unclean spirits, male and female. [Abu Dawud 4/264, Ahmad 2/389]

After Leaving the Toilet

Click here to hear this du'a Ghufraanak(a).

I seek Your forgiveness.
Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi, Narrated ‘Aisha, r.a.

When Allah’s Apostle (peace be upon him) came out from the privy, he said: (I seek) forgiveness from Thee.  [Transmitted by Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Darimi]

 

Before Sleeping

Bismika Rabbi wada’tu janbi, wa bika arfa’uhu, fa’in amsakta nafsi farhamha, wa in arsaltaha fahfazha, bima tahfazu bihi ‘ibaadakas saaliheen.

With Your Name my Lord, I lay myself down; and with Your Name I rise.  And if my soul You take, have mercy on it, and if You send it back then preserve it as you preserve Your righteous slaves. [Bukhari 11/126, Muslim 4/2083]

 

Bismika Allahuma amootu wa ahya.

In Your Name, Oh Allah, I die and I live. [Dying and living are metaphors for sleep and wakefulness, Allahu Alam.  See Qur'an 2:258, 3:156, 7:158, Al-Asqalani, Fath Al-Bari 11/113, Muslim 4/2083]

Brief Alertness During Sleep (i.e. stirring in the bed, turning over in the bed)

La ilaha illallahul Wahidul Qahharu, Rabbus samaawaati wal ardi wa ma bainahumal Azeezul Ghaffaru.

There is no deity but Allah, the One, the Victorious, Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, the All-Mighty, the All-Forgiving. [Al-Hakim, An-Nasa'i, see also Al-Albani]

Waking Up from a Bad Dream

A’udhu bikalimaatil lahit taammaati min ghadabihi wa ‘iqaabihi, wa sharri ibaadihi, wa min hamazatish shayaateeni wa an yahdurun.

I seek refuge in the Perfect Word of Allah from His anger and His punishment, from the evil of His slaves and from the taunts of jinn and from their presence. [Abu Dawud 4/12. See also Al-Albani]

Upon Entering the Marketplace

Click here to hear this du'a laa ‘ilaaha ‘illa-llaahu wahdahu laa shareeka lahu lahu-lmulku wa lahu-l-hamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayyun laa yamootu biyadihi-l-khairu wa huwa ‘ala kulli shai ‘in qadeer.

There is none worthy of worship except Allah, alone, without any partner with Him. For Him is the Dominion and to Him is the praise. He gives life and He brings about death; He is living and does not die. In His hand is all good and He has power over all things. [Recorded by al-Tirmidhi. According to al-Albani, this hadith is hasan. See al-Albani, Sahih al-Jaami, vol. 2, p. 1070]

When Someone Does a Good Deed for Another

Click here to hear this du'a jazaaku-llaahu khairan

May Allah reward you well.

[Recorded by Abu Dawood and al-Tirmidhi. According to al-Albani, this hadith is sahih. See al-Albani, Sahih al-Jaami, vol. 2, p. 1089]

Calamity

Inna lillahi wa inna ilaihi raji’un

We belong to Allah and to Him we shall return.

The Prophet  as saying, “If any Muslim man or woman suffers a calamity and keeps it in his memory, even if it happened a long time ago, saying each time it is remembered, ‘We belong to Allah and to Him do we return,’ Allah, who is Blessed and Exalted will give a fresh reward each time it is said, equivalent to the reward when it happened.”  [Tirmidhi: Ahmad and Bayhaqi, in Shu'ab al-Iman, transmitted it.]

Meeting an Adversary or Powerful Ruler or Fearing a People

Click here to hear this du'a Allahumma inna naj’aluka fee nuhoorihim wa na’udhu bika min shuroorihim.

Oh Allah, we ask you to restrain them by their necks and we seek refuge in you from their evil. [Dawud 2/89, Al-Hakim 2/142]

 

Allahumma Anta adudi, wa Anta naseeri, bika ajoolu, wa bika asoolu, wa bika oqaatilu.

Oh Allah, You are my strength and You are my victory.  For Your sake I go forth and for Your sake I stand firm and for Your sake I fight. [Dawud 3/42, At-Tirmidhi 5/572]

When Breaking the fast

Click here to hear this du'a dhahaba-DHama ‘u wabtallati-l-’urooqu wa thabata-l-ajru ‘insha ‘allaah.

The thirst has gone, the veins have become moist and the reward is confirmed, Allah willing.

[Dawood, al-Nasaai in al-Kubra, ibn al-Sunee and others. Declared hasan by scholars such as al-Hilaali. See al-Hilaali vol. 1, p. 493.]

Committing a Sin

Perform wudu and then perform two Rak’ah, and finally ask Allah for forgiveness. Surely he will be forgiven. [Dawud 2/86, At-Tirmidhi 2/257]

Loving Another

When one brother loves another for the sake of Allah, swt, he should inform him of that by saying,

Click here to hear this du'a ‘Innee ‘uhibbuka fee-laah.

“I love you for the sake of Allah”
His brother’s response should be,

Click here to hear this du'a ‘ahabbaka-lladhee ‘ahbabtanee lah(u)

“May the One for whose sake you love me love you.”

[Abu Dawud. According to al-Albani, this hadith is sahih. See al-Albani, Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood, vol. 3, pl. 965]

Stricken by Setback or if Something Displeasing Happens to a Person

Click here to hear this du'a Qaddara-llaahu wa ma shaa’a fa’al(a).

What Allah decreed and what He wishes will be done. [Muslim 4/2052]

“And avoid using the word, “if,” for that opens the door for the acts of Satan.”
[Recorded by ibn al-Sunee. According to al-Salafi, this hadith is sahih. See al-Salafi, p. 126.]

Last Words Before Dying

La ilaha illallahu.

There is no deity but Allah. [Dawud 3/190]

When the Wind Blows

Allahumma inni as’aluka khairaha, wa a’udhu bika min sharriha.

Oh Allah, I ask you for the good of it and seek refuge in You against its evil. [Dawud 4/326, Ibn Majah 2/1228, See also Al-Albani]

When Hearing Thunder

Subhanalladhi yusabbihur ra’du bi hamdihi wal malaa’ikatu min kheefatihi.

Glory to Him whom thunder and angels magnify with their praise, who are before Him awestruck. [Malik, Al-Muwatta' 2/992]

Before Marital Relations

Bismillah. Allahumma jannibnash shaitaana, wa jannibish shaitaana ma razaqtana.

By the Name of Allah. Oh Allah, cause the shaytaan to pass us by and cause the devil to pass by that which You provide for us [Bukhari 6/141, Muslim 2/1028]

Gambling

Gambling


 

The Noble Qur’an – Al-Ma’idah 5:90, 91

O you who believe! intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), gambling, Al-Ansab (stone alters), and Al-Azlam (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shaytaan’s [Satan's] handiwork.  So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.

Shaytaan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer.  So, will you not then abstain?

Adultery

Adultery


The Noble Qur’an 22:54

And that those who have been given knowledge may know that it (this Qur’an) is the truth from your Lord, and that they may believe therein, and their hearts may SUBMIT TO IT WITH HUMILITY. And verily, Allah is the Guide of those who believe, to the Straight Path.

The Noble Qur’an 24:30

…Tell the believing men to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.). That is purer for them. Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what they do.

Hadith – Al-Bukhari Book 25, No. 5403

Some persons from Banu Hisham entered the house of Asma’ daughter of Umays when AbuBakr also entered (and she was at that time his wife). He (AbuBakr) saw it and disapproved of it and he made a mention of that to Allah’s Messenger (saaws) and said: I did not see but good only (in my wife). Thereupon Allah’s Messenger Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said: Verily Allah has made her immune from all this. Then Allah’s Messenger Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him stood on the pulpit and said: After this day no man should enter the house of another person in his absence, but only when he is accompanied by one person or two persons.

Al-Tirmidhi 3118, Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab , Tirmidhi transmitted it

The Prophet (saaws) said, “Whenever a man is alone with a woman the Devil makes a third.”

The Noble Qur’an 33:60-61

If the HYPOCRITES, and those in whose hearts is a disease (evil desire for ADULTERY, etc.), and those who spread FALSE NEWS among the people in Al­Madinah, cease not, We shall certainly let you OVERPOWER them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbours but a little while. Accursed, wherever found, they shall be seized and killed with a (terrible) slaughter.
Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 8.800B, Narrated Ikrima from Ibn Abbas

Allah’s Apostle Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said, “When a slave (of Allah) commits illegal sexual intercourse, he is not a believer at the time of committing it; and if he steals, he is not a believer at the time of stealing; and if he drinks an alcoholic drink, when he is not a believer at the time of drinking it; and he is not a believer when he commits a murder.” ‘Ikrima said: I asked Ibn Abbas, “How is faith taken away from him?” He said, Like this,” by clasping his hands and then separating them, and added, “But if he repents, faith returns to him like this,” by clasping his hands again.

 


Accusing a Woman of Adultery

The Noble Qur’an An-Nur 24:2-9

2. The woman and the man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them with a hundred stripes. Let not pity withhold you in their case, in a punishment prescribed by Allâh, if you believe in Allâh and the Last Day. And let a party of the believers witness their punishment. (This punishment is for unmarried persons guilty of the above crime but if married persons commit it, the punishment is to stone them to death, according to Allâh’s Law).

3. The adulterer marries not but an adulteress or a Mushrikah and the adulteress none marries her except an adulterer or a Muskrik [and that means that the man who agrees to marry (have a sexual relation with) a Mushrikah (female polytheist, pagan or idolatress) or a prostitute, then surely he is either an adulterer, or a Mushrik (polytheist, pagan or idolater, etc.) And the woman who agrees to marry (have a sexual relation with) a Mushrik (polytheist, pagan or idolater) or an adulterer, then she is either a prostitute or a Mushrikah (female polytheist, pagan, or idolatress, etc.)]. Such a thing is forbidden to the believers (of Islâmic Monotheism).

4. And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their testimony forever, they indeed are the Fâsiqûn (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allâh).

5. Except those who repent thereafter and do righteous deeds, (for such) verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

6. And for those who accuse their wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let the testimony of one of them be four testimonies (i.e. testifies four times) by Allâh that he is one of those who speak the truth.

7. And the fifth (testimony) (should be) the invoking of the Curse of Allâh on him if he be of those who tell a lie (against her).

8. But it shall avert the punishment (of stoning to death) from her, if she bears witness four times by Allâh, that he (her husband) is telling a lie.

9. And the fifth (testimony) should be that the Wrath of Allâh be upon her if he (her husband) speaks the truth.
Hadith – Sahih Muslim #3564, Narrated Abdullah

On Friday night we were staying in the mosque when one of the Ansar came there and said: If someone finds his wife with a man, and he speaks about it, you lash him, and if he kills, you kill him, and if he keeps quiet, he has to consume his anger. By Allah, I shall definitely ask about him from Allah’s Messenger Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. On the following day he came to Allah’s Messenger Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and asked him thus: If a man were to find a man with his wife and if he were to talk about it, you would lash him; and if he killed, you would kill him, and if he were to keep quiet, he would consume his anger. Thereupon he (the Prophet) said: Allah, solve (this problem), and he began to supplicate (before Him). Then the verses pertaining to li’an were revealed: “Those who accuse their wives and have no witness except themselves” (24:6). Then he and his wife came into the presence of Allah’s Messenger Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and they invoked curses (in order to testify their claim). The man swore four times in the name of Allah that he was one of the truthful and then invoked a curse for the fifth time, saying: Let there be the curse of Allah upon him if he were among the liars. Then she began to invoke a curse. Allah’s Messenger Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said to her: Just wait (and curse after considering it), but she refused and invoked a curse. When she turned away, he (Allah’s Apostle) said: It seems that this woman shall give birth to a curly-haired black child. And so she did give birth to a curly-haired black child.

 


Adultery Committed by the Insane

Hadith – Abu Dawood #4388, Narrated Ali ibn Abu Talib

AbuZubyan said: A woman who had committed adultery was brought to Umar. He gave orders that she should be stoned. Ali passed by just then. He seized her and let her go. Umar was informed of it. He said: Ask Ali to come to me. Ali came to him and said: Commander of the Faithful, you know that the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: There are three (people) whose actions are not recorded: A boy till he reaches puberty, a sleeper till he awakes, a lunatic till he is restored to reason. This is an idiot (mad) woman belonging to the family of so and so. Someone might have done this action with her when she suffered the fit of lunacy. Umar said: I do not know. Ali said: I do not know.

 


Torah Punishment for Adultery
is Stoning to Death

Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 6.79, Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar

The Jews brought to the Prophet a man and a woman from among them who had committed illegal sexual intercourse. The Prophet said to them, “How do you usually punish the one amongst you who has committed illegal sexual intercourse?” They replied, “We blacken their faces with coal and beat them.” He said, “Don’t you find the order of Ar-Rajm (i.e. stoning to death) in the Torah?” They replied, “We do not find anything in it.” ‘Abdullah bin Salam (after hearing this conversation) said to them, “You have told a lie! Bring here the Torah and recite it if you are truthful.” (So the Jews brought the Torah). And the religious teacher who was teaching it to them, put his hand over the Verse of Ar-Rajm and started reading what was written above and below the place hidden with his hand, but he did not read the Verse of Ar-Rajm. ‘Abdullah bin Salam removed his (i.e. the teacher’s) hand from the Verse of Ar-Rajm and said, “What is this?” So when the Jews saw that Verse, they said, “This is the Verse of Ar-Rajm.” So the Prophet ordered the two adulterers to be stoned to death, and they were stoned to death near the place where biers used to be placed near the Mosque. I saw her companion (i.e. the adulterer) bowing over her so as to protect her from the stones.


Funerals

Al-Istirjaa


When the news of death in the family reaches the relatives and friends, the first thing that they should say is the following Qur’anic verse (2:156): “Inna lil-laahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji’oon [Truly! To Allâh we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.]“.  This du’aa is known in arabic as al-Istirjaa.

In the case of the husband or wife, they should add “Allaahumma ajirnee fee museebatee wakh-luf lee khayran minhaa (or minhu if it is the wife saying it) [O Allah grant me refuge in my affliction and replace her(him) with someone better]

 


Crying For Mercy at time of Death is Halal

The Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him shed tears, but did not cry out in a loud voice….

Hadith – Bukhari
We went with Allah’s Apostle May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him to the blacksmith Abu Saif, and he was the husband of the wet-nurse of Ibrahim (the son of the Prophet). Allah’s Apostle took Ibrahim and kissed him and smelled him and later we entered Abu Saif’s house and at that time Ibrahim was in his last breaths, and the eyes of Allah’s Apostle May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him started shedding tears. ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf said, “O Allah’s Apostle, even you are weeping!” He said, “O Ibn ‘Auf, this is mercy.” Then he wept more and said, “The eyes are shedding tears and the heart is grieved, and we will not say except what pleases our Lord, O Ibrahim! Indeed we are grieved by your separation.”

 


Words at The Time of Dying

 

Both Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree and Aboo Hurayrah quoted the Prophet (SAW) as saying “Prompt your dying ones (to say): laa ilaaha il-lal-laah 1 and whoever’s last words before dying are: laa ilaaha il-lal-laah, will enter Paradise one day,even if he is afflicted before that by punishment.”2

1Sahih Muslim,Vol.2,#1996
2This addition is only found in Saheeh ibn Hibbaan, authenticated in Irwaa al-Ghaleel,vol . 3,pg.150

This statement does not simply mean that we should mention shahadah, but the dying person should be instructed to say the shahadah, as is evident from the Prophet’s statement, whoever’s last words are: “laa ilaahha il-lal-laah.”

Muslims are also encouraged to be present when non-muslims are dying in order to present Islaam to them,in the hope that they will accept Islaam prior to their deaths. For the acceptance of Islaam at this point to be of any benefit, it must be based on knowledge, it must be expressed sincerely and with certainty, and it must take place before the actual throes of death begin.

 

Hadith – Muslim, vol.1, p.20, #41, Narrated Abu Hurayrah

Allah’s Messenger May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him said, “I testify that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah. Any servant who meets Allah with those two {testimonies}, having no doubt in them, will enter Paradise.”

 

Hadith – Muslim, vol.1, p.18, #36, Narrated ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar

The Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him said,”Allah, Most Great and Glorious, will accept his servants repentance until the throes of death begin.” [Collected by at-Tirmithee and ibn Maajah and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah,vol.2,p.418,#3430. See Riyadh-us-Saleheen,vol.1,p.12,#18 for an english translation of this hadeeth]

 


Good Words

People present may pray aloud for the one who is dying letting the person hear words of concern and sympathy.Negative words should be avoided this will only increase the difficulties the sick and dying are facing.Good words and positive thoughts will make the process of dying easier and recovery from illness more bearable…

Umm Salamah related that the Prophet(SAW) said, “If you are in the presence of a sick or dying person,you should say good things,for verily the angels say”Aameen” to whatever you say.” When Umm Salamah asked the Prophet (SAW) what should she say, he replied: “Say: Allaahumma-ghfir lee wa lahu wa a’qibnee minhu’uqbaa hasanah [O Allah forgive him and me, and grant me a good substitute after him.]“

[Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.436, #2002Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2.p.887#3109Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, pp.366-7, #1447 and Mishkat Al-Masabih, vol.1, p337Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.436, #2002]

 


Surah Yaaseen

The practice of specifically reading the 36th chapter of the Qur’aan, Soorah Yaaseen, in the presence of the dying has no basis in the authentic Sunnah. Neither the Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him nor his companions did it, or recommended that it be done. However, it does fall under the general heading of “good things”which could be said in the presence of the one who is dying, but it carries with it no special value…

There is an inauthentic hadeeth narrated by Ma’qil and collected in Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.889#3115, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah,vol.2,p.367#1448. See Also Mishkat Al-Masabih,vol.1,p.338. It is declared inauthentic in Da’eef Sunan Abee Daawood,p316#683. This inauthentic hadeeth incorrectly specifies that Surah Yaaseen should be read for the dying; to believe that doing so has special value is considered bid’ah, a sinful innovation in the religion.

 


Facing the Qiblah

Turning the body of one who is dying so that he or she faces the qiblah [Makkah] has no foundation in the practice of the Prophet(SAW) and his companions. The body should be turned to face Makkah when it is placed in the grave, according to the Prophets instructions. However at the time of dying there were no instructions. Turning the body became a custom after the time of the Prophets companions, but was objected to by the scholars of that time…i.e.Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib ibn Hazn (634-713CE), from the Madeenite tribe of Makhzoom, was one of the seven leading legal scholars of Madinah. He was known as the most knowledegeable scholar about ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab’s legal principles and his rulings. He lived on what he earned from the sale of olive oil and he never accepted grants.(Al-A’laam,vol.3p.155) Collected by Ibn Abee Shaybah in al-Musannaf and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa’iz,p.11, nt.15.

 


Acceptance of Fate

The dying individual is obliged to accept his lot gracefully so that it becomes a source of reward and blessing for him on the Day of Judgement. The Prophet (SAW) taught that patiently bearing the trials of this life is an act of righteousness which expiates sins.

Abdullah stated that he visited Allah’s Messenger (SAW) while he was suffering from a high fever and said to him ,”O Messenger Of Allah,you have a high fever.”He replied ,”yes,I have a fever equal to that of two of your men experience.” I asked, “Is it because you will have double the reward?”He replied,”Yes , it is so.Any Muslim who is afflicted with the harm of a thorn prick or more will have,as a result of it ,some of his sins expiated the way a tree sheds it’s leaves.”

Sahih Al Bukhari,vol.7,p374,#551 and Sahih Muslim,vol.4,p1364,# 6235…

 


Between Fear and Hope

 

The dying person should be in a psychological state between fear and hope.The person should fear Allah’s punishment for his or her sins and,at the same time, hope for Allah’s mercy and forgiveness…

“Do not lose hope of Allah’s mercy, for verily Allah (can) forgive all sin.”

The only exception to that rule is the sin of shirk, as it negates the very purpose of creation…

The Noble Qur’an – az-Zumar39:53

Say: “O ‘Ibâdî (My slaves) who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allâh, verily Allâh forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

The Noble Qur’an – 4:48, see also 4:116

Verily, Allâh forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allâh in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.

 


The Death Wish

No matter how severe the pain of the sickness may become, one is not allowed to hope or wish for death.The death wish reflects a belief that Allah has burdened one beyond his or her capacity and indicates a lack of patience.The longer people live,the more opportunity they have to do good and improve their lot…

Hadith – Bukhari,vol.7,p390,#575, Muslim,vol.4,p1411,#6480 & 6485

Anas quoted the Prophet(SAW) as saying, “None of you should wish for death because of some harm which has afflicted him.But if one must do it, let him say: Allaahumma ahyinee maa kaanatil-hayaatu khayran lee [O Allah keep me alive as long as living is best for me] wa tawaffanee ithaa kaanatil-wafaatu khayran lee[and take my life if death is better for me].”

 


Debts

Dying individuals may have in their possession certain items belonging to others. If that is the case,they should return them as soon as they are able to do so, in order to avoid having to pay them back from their good deeds on the Day of Judgement.

The Prophet(SAW) was reported to have said, “There are two types of debt: whoever dies intending to repay it, I will be responsible for it,and whoever dies with no intention to repay it, will have it taken from his good deeds.There will not be any deenaars or dirhams on that Day. [Collected by at-Tabaranee and authenticated in Ahkaamul janaa'iz,p.5]

 


Waseeyah (Will)

Before dying, everyone leaving behind wealth and property should write or dictate a will in which they may give away up to one-third of their wealth to those who would not inherit from them based on Islamic inheritance laws.

This recommendation was instituted by Allah to protect the rights of non-inheriting relatives and friends. Consequently the Prophet (SAW) encouraged muslims to record and keep it with them,as soon as the need arises.

Abdullaah ibn’Umar related that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “It is not right for a muslim who has something to bequeath to pass two nights without having it in writing in his possession… Reported by ibn’Umar and recorded in all of the six major books of hadeeth…

Sahih Al-Bhukari ,vol.4, p1#1
Sahih Muslim,vol.3, p863#3987
Sunan Abu Dawud,vol.2, p.805#2856

According to Islaamic law, wealth obtained by waseeyah is not considered inheritance, but a gift. Under this law muslims may leave a portion of their wealth to non-muslim relatives and a muslim may also receive a portion in a will from a non-muslim relative, because it is considered a gift. Otherwise “A muslim must not inherit from a disbeliever, nor should a disbeliever inherit from a muslim.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari ,vol.8, p.498, #756/Sahih Muslim,vol.3,p.852,# 3928]

According to the system of Islaamic inheritance laws (faraa’id), non-muslims are not classified as heirs to muslims. Likewise, muslims have no right to take portions of their dead non-muslim relatives wealth allotted by non-Islaamic systems of inheritance. (That is, if the deceased non-muslim relative does not write a will ‘ waseeyah’ and the non-muslim state divides up his/her wealth according to it’s manmade laws, the muslim relative is prohibited by Islaamic law to accept any share allotted to him/her by this process.)

 


After Death

Obligatory actions on those present:

Once the person expires (passes away), the relatives and those present are obliged to perform particular services for him or her.
1. Closing the eyes and du’aa (supplication)

The eyes of the dead person should be closed and some prayers should be made for him, based on the following hadeeth of Umm Salamah (r.a.);

Hadith – Sahih Muslim,vol.2pp.436-7 #2003

Umm Salamah said, “Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aleihi wa sallam) came in and found Aboo Salamah’s eyes staring. He closed them and said, verily when the soul is snatched, the eyes follow it.” Some people from his family began to scream, so he said, “Only pray for good for yourselves, for verily the angels say ‘Aameen [So-be-it]‘ to whatever you say,”

He then prayed, saying:

Allaahummagh-fir li Abee Salamah warfa’ darajatahoo filmahdeeyeen,
[O Allaah, forgive Aboo Salamah and raise his level among the rightly guided,]

wakhlufhu fee ‘aqibihee filghaabireen.
[and let his remaining offspring be like him.]

waghfir lanaa walahoo yaa Rabbal-Aalameen
[Forgive us and forgive him,O Lord of all the worlds]

wafsah lahoo fee qabrihee wa nawwir lahoo feeh.
[and expand his grave and illuminate it for him.]

2. Covering the body

A sheet of cloth large enough to cover the whole body of the deceased should be drawn over the whole body.

3. Hastening the burial

It is not permissable for muslims to delay the burial in order for the maximum number of relatives to see the deceased, as is common practice among other communities. Once death is evident, the body should be prepared and taken out of the house for prayer and burial as soon as possible. In this way,contact with the dead body is minimized, which keeps the grief and hurt of seeing the dead down to a minimum. Abu Hurayrah related that the Prophet  May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him said “Hasten the funeral rites” [Collected in all six major books of hadeeth. See: Sahih Al-Bukhari vol.2,p.225, #401Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p448,#2059Sunan Abu Dawud,vol.2,pp897-8,#.3153;Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.383, #1477Mishkat Al-Masabih,vol.1, p338]

4. Locating the burial

The dead should be buried in the same area where they died. Transporting the body to another area or another country is not permissable if it will unnecessarily delay the burial or cause financial or other hardship.

5. Paying off debts of deceased

All outstanding debts of the dead person should be repaid from the wealth that he or she left behind, even if it consumes all of the inheritance. If the dead person is without wealth or the inheritance was not sufficient to cover all of his or her debts, the Islamic state will be responsible to repay the remainder, if the dead person had made serious efforts to pay it.

 


Permissable Actions by Those Present

 

1. Uncovering the face and kissing it

Those present at the individual’s death or those who come to see the dead person for the last time are allowed to uncover theface and kiss it.Kissing the face of the dead is considered a part of the Sunnah of the Prophet(SAW) and his companions. [Sunan Abu Dawud vol.2,p.898,# 3157, Sunan Ibn-i-Majah vol.2,p.371 #1456]

 

2. Crying

Those present and the relatives of the deceased are allowed to cry for a maximum period of three (3) days.

Abdullah ibn Ja’far narrated that the Prophet (SAW) delayed coming to visit Ja’far’s family ‘for three days after his death’,then he came to them and said, “Do not cry for my brother after today.”[Dawud,vol.3,p.1165,#4180]

3. Patience

Relatives of the deceased are obliged to be patient, practice self restraint, and gracefully accept Allah’s decree,because Allah has already promised mankind that He would test them.

The Noble Qur’an 2:155

“Verily I will test you with fear and hunger, and loss of wealth, life, and the fruit (of your labor), so give glad tidings to the patient ones.”

 

Among the glad tidings for those who are patient when loved ones are lost is that a home is prepared for them in Paradise, Aboo Moosaa al-Ash’aree quoted Allah’s Messenger May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him as saying:

Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmithee,vol.1,pp.298-9, #814
“If a child of [Allah's] slave dies, Allah will say to His angels: You took My slaves child, they will reply: Yes, He will then say: You took the love of his life, and they will reply: Yes, He will then ask: What did My slave say? and they will reply: He praised you and said, surely, we belong to Allah and to Him we will return.’ Allah will then say: Build a house in Paradise for My slave and call it the House of Praise.”

However true patience for which Allah, swt, promises reward is that which is practised when calamity first strikes. The real test of patience is at the time of the calamity; being patient after the initial shock and reaction have worn off is not considered real patience.

 

 


Al-Hidaad (Mourning)

Women are required to avoid all forms of beautification as a sign of mourning for their husbands, children or relatives. This does not contradict the recommendations for patience, as long as the mourning does not exceed three days for her child or relative and four months and ten days for her husband.
Hadith – Al-Bukhari, vol.7, pp.193-4,# 254 and Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.778, #3552
Umm ‘Ateeyah said, “We were forbidden to mourn for more than three days for a dead person, except for a husband, in which case a woman should mourn for four months and ten days [during this period] we were not allowed to wear khol on our eyes, nor perfume ourselves, nor wear colored clothes, except ‘asab cloth. It was permissable for us at the time of bathing at the end of menses to use a small amount of incense.”

 


Forbidden Actions by Those Present

1. Wailing

The Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him strictly forbade wailing, screaming and hiring of mourners. Furthermore, he identified such practices as acts of kufr (disbelief), because they indicate displeasure with what Allah has decreed. Eemaan (faith) includes the belief that Allah is the source of all good and that all of His actions are wise. Proper eemaan would never allow those who possess it to commit such acts of ignorance.

  • Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him said,”There are two practices found among people, both of which indicate disbelief: ridiculing the ancestry (of others) and wailing over the dead.”  [Muslim, vol.1, p.44, #128]
  • “Verily the dead are punished in thir graves by the wailing of their family over them.” [Bukhari, vol.2, p.213, #379; Muslim, vol.2, p.439, #2015]
  • The Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him said, “The deceased who is wailed over is tortured for that wailing.”[Bukhari 2.378, Narrated Al Mughira, r.a.]
  • The Prophet  said, “He who slaps the cheeks, tears the clothes and follows the tradition of the Days of Ignorance is not from us.” [Bukhari 2.385, Narrated Abdullah, r.a.]

The dead will suffer due to the wailing of relatives in two cases: (a)When the deceased requested wailing prior to his death. (b) If the deceased knew that it was the custom of his people and he did not request that they not do so over him.

2. Striking Cheeks and Tearing of Clothes

At the time of the Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, the practice in Arabia for women in mourning was to slap or scratch their cheeks and to rip their clothes. These acts were strictly forbidden, as well as similar practices which involved self-punishment and the destruction of material wealth. These practices all heighten the pain and sorrow that accompany death,while Islam seeks to minimize it.

Ibn Mas’ood reported that the Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him said, “Whoever slaps his face,tears his clothes,or invites(others)to an un-islamic slogan is not of us.” [Collected by Al-Bukhari,Muslim, Ibn Maajah and al-Bayhaqee; Bukhari, vol.2, p.216, #385; Sahih Muslim,vol.1,p.59,#184]

3. Shaving the Head or Dishevelling the Hair

In Islam women are required to shun various forms of beautification in order to avoid attracting other men during their period of mourning,since contracting marriage during this time is forbidden. However,shaving the head and dishevelling the hair is prohibited,as these acts go beyond normal bounds and are associated with pre-islamic concepts. [Bukhari,vol.2,p.215,#383; Muslim,vol.1,p.59,nos.186-7]

4. Announcing someone’s death

It is forbidden to make a big affair about announcing anyone’s death, such as proclaiming it from the minarets of the mosques, announcing it in the market streets,etc.

If someone died, Huthayfah ibn al-Yamaan used to say, “Do not proclaim his death to anyone,for fear that it may be a death announcement and I heard Allah’s Messenger May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him forbid death announcement with my own two ears.” [at-Tirmithee and Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2,p.382,#1476,and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah, vol.1, p.248, #1203]

However,a calmly expressed general announcement is allowed,based on the Prophet’s May Allah's peace and blessings be upon himpractice.

5. Gathering to give condolences

The custom of organizing gatherings in the home, at the grave or in the masjid to give condolences to the family of the deceased is against the Sunnah of the companions of the Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him.

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee said, “I dislike gatherings, even if there is no wailing or crying. For it only renews the [family's feelings of] sorrow and puts burdens on their food supplies.” [Al-Umm,vol.1,p.248, quoted in Ahkaamu;-Janaa'iz,p.167 Al-Majmoo', vol.5, p.306, quoted in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz, p.167]

6. Preparing food by the family of the deceased

The obligation placed on the family of the dead person to prepare food for gatherings is incorrect, based on the previously mentioned statement of the Prophets (SAW) companion, al-Bajalee. Furthermore, it contradicts theProphet’s (SAW) explicit instructions to relatives, friends and neighbors is to send food to the bereaved family. [Bukhari, vol.7, p.401, #593; Muslim,vol.4,p.1202,#5491. Collected by at-Tirmithee,Aboo Daawood and ibn Maajah(Sunan Ibn Majah, vol.2, p.455, #1610) and authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah,vol.1,p.268,#1306]

 


Recommended Actions by Those Present

Preparing food for the family of the deceased

It was the practice of the Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him to have his family prepare food for the relatives of the dead.

People later elaborated on this practice until it became an exaggerated ritual with much pomp and show. Later scholars considered its distorted form an innovation and abandoned it. [Sunan Ibn-i-Majah,vol.2,p.455,#1610]

 


Testifying Good of the Dead

 

It is recommended that righteous muslims who knew the deceased well and were among his or her neighbors should testify to others about the good qualities of the deceased.

Anas quote the Prophet(SAW) as saying, “For any muslim who dies and four of his close neighbors testify that they have known him to be good, Allah-the Blessed, the Highest-will say, ‘I have accepted your testimony and forgiven him for what you do not know about.’ [Collected by Ahmad and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz, pp.45-6]

 


Preparing the Body

 

There should be no delay in preparing the body, i.e.washing ,shrouding, and burial of the deceased, supported by the Prophets May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him instruction, “Hasten the funeral rites.” [Collected in all six(6) books of Hadith.See Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2,p.255,#401]

 

1.  Injunctions concerning washing

  1. Fard Kifaayah (Collective Obligation) – Washing the body prior to shrouding and the burial is obligatory, according to numerous recorded instructions given by the Prophet(SAW). [Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.194, #344]
  2. Males Wash Males – As a general rule, males should take the responsibility of washing males,and females should wash females. The only exception to the rule is in the case mahrams, such as of husband and wife, or small children.
  3. The Most Knowledgeable – Those who take responsibility of washing the dead should be the most knowledgeable of the procedures, preferably from among the deceased’s immediate family members or relatives. Those with taqwa (fear of Allah, piety) should be chosen in order to ensure proper treatment of the dead.
  4. Ghusl (Islamic Bath) – Those who wash the dead are not required to be in a state of purity. Consequently menustrating women may perform the washing procedure. However, it is recommended that those who wash the dead take an islamic bath(Ghusl) afterwards, based on the following hadith;
    • Aboo Hurayah reported that the Prophet (SAW)said,”Whoever washes the dead should take a ghusl,and whoever carries the corpse should make wudoo. [Sunan Abu Dawud,vol.2,p.898,#3155.]

2.  Method of washing

  1. The body should be laid out, stripped of its garments and its joints loosened, if possible. A cloth should be placed over the private parts, between the navel and the knees so that the washers do not look at the pubic area of the dead person.The stomach should be pressed to expel any remaining impurities.
  2. A rag or cloth should be used to wash the body and the washing should begin with the places on the right side of the body washed during wudoo.
  3. After completeing the wudoo,the woman’s hair should be undone if it was braided and the hair thoroughly washed.Then the rest of the body should be washed ,turning the body on it’s side so as to complete the right side before washing the left.
  4. The body should be washed a minimum of three times and the water should have some cleaning agent in it, like soap or disinfectant. The final washing should have some perfume in it, such as camphor or the like.
  5. The body should then be dried and the hair combed out. In the case of women the hair should be plaited into three braids,one from the front and two from the sides and placed behind her head.
  6. Exceptions: The Pilgrim… In the case of a person who dies in a state of ihraam, perfume should not be used in washing his or her body.

3.  The Martyr

In the case of the martyr (shaheed), his or her body should not be washed at all but be buried as it is.

4.  Injunctions concerning the shroud

  1. Shrouding the body is obligatory, based on the commands of the Prophet(SAW) to do so. The body should be shrouded immediately after it is washed and dried.
  2. The shroud or its cost should be taken from the wealth left behind of the deceased if there is enough money to purchase garments which can cover all the body.
  3. The shroud should be sufficient to cover the whole body, if not, those preparing the body should supply a proper shroud.
  4. If the number of dead is great or the cloth used for shrouding is insufficient for all the bodies, more than one body may be wrapped in the same shroud at a time.
  5. The number of sheets used to wrap the body may be as few as one sheet. It could also be two sheets. The preferable number is generally considered to be three sheets, based on the fact that the Prophet(SAW) was shrouded in three. However, since the use of one or two sheets were suggested and approved by the Prophet(SAW)himself, the companions choice of three sheets cannot be considered more preferable than two or one. There is no differance between the man and woman in the number of sheets used. The Prophet(SAW) did not specify a particular number for women and another for men, as is commonly held among muslims today.
  6. The preferable color is white. It is also recommended that the cloth or at least one of the sheets be striped.
  7. It is recommended that the shroud be perfumed with incense thrice, except in the case of the muhrim, as was previously mentioned.
  8. Spending large sums of money on the shroud the way non-muslims compete with each other in buying the most expensive coffins, is strictly forbidden in Islam.The sheets should be ordinary cloth, preferably cotton and not synthetics, so that it decomposes quickly along with the body, and the number of sheets should not exceed three.

5.  Injunctions concerning the funeral procession

  1. Following The Bier – To follow a muslims bier is among the obligatory rights due to every muslim from all muslims who witness his or her funeral procession.
  2. Method of following The BierThere are two basic ways of following the bier. Both ways were done by the Prophet(SAW), but he favored the second method by indicating that it’s reward was greater.
    • Following it from the family’s home until the funeral prayer is made for the deceased.
    • Following it from the family’s home until the body has been buried.
  3. The participation of Women – The virtue of following the bier is basically for men alone. Women are not encouraged to take part based on the fact that the Prophet (SAW) prohibited their participation.
  4. The Dirge – Following the bier with wailing, chants, dirges, burning incense etc.,are all forbidden and considered bidah (religious innovations). The way of the Prophet (SAW) and his companions wasto maintain silence while walking with the bier.
  5. Haste in carrying the Bier – The pallbeares are required to walk quickly from the deceased house to the masjid, and from the masjid to the graveyard.
    • Muwatta Hadith 16.58Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abu Hurayra said, “Make your funerals speedy, for it is only good that you are advancing him towards, or evil that you are taking off your necks.”
  6. Accompanying The Bier – Those walking with the bier are allowed to walk in front, behind, or on either side of it, while those riding should be behind it.
  7. Standing For The Bier – In the early days of Islam, the Prophet(SAW) used to stand when the bier passed by, but later he abolished the practice.
  8. Transporting The Bier – Transportation of the bier in a funeral coach or vehicle (hearse) according to the traditions of non-muslims is forbidden.Carts which could have been used to transport the dead existed in the Prophets (SAW) time, but he instructed his followers to walk and carry the bier with their own hands. The Prophet (SAW) explicitly instructed his followers on numerous occasions to differ in their religious and social customs from non-muslims.

 


The Funeral Prayer

 

The performance of salaatul-janaazah(the funeral prayer) is considered fard (obligatory) kifaayah. If someone is buried without it being performed, the whole community is held responsible, but as long as some gather and perform it, the obligation is removed from the community as a whole.

Exceptions: Children Below the Age of Puberty

A child born dead or aborted after the fourth month,or one that dies before reaching puberty, does not have to have a funeral prayer because the Prophet(SAW)did not do so for his own son.

A child aborted before the fourth month, if the child was stillborn before the fourth month,there is no funeral prayer for it, since it was not considered living in the human sense that it has a soul which may be prayed for. This ruling is based on the hadith related by ibn Mas’ood,in which the Prophet(SAW)was quoted as saying,

“Verily the creation of each one of you comes together in his mother’s stomach for forty days, then he becomes a leech-like clot for a similar period, then he becomes a clump of flesh for a similar period,then an angel is sent to him and the angel blows his soul into him.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.8,p.387,#593,and Sahih Muslim ,vol.4,p.1391,# 6390]

 


Salaatal-Janaazah

 

  1. The Martyr (Shaheed) – Salaatal-Janaazah is not required for one who dies or is killed while fighting for the cause of Islam. Such an individual can be buried without salaatal-janaazah. However, the funeral prayer may be made for martyrs, since the Prophet(SAW) did perform salaatal-janaazah for those who died in battle on other occasions.
  2. An Executed Criminal – One who voluntarily confesses to a crime whose punishment is death should be prayed for,since such a confession is an unparalleled form of true repentance.
  3. The Corrupt – The funeral prayer should be held even for those who were known to be corrupt, like alcoholics,drug addicts, adulterers, and those who abandoned prayer and zakat, while aknowledging that they are compulsory duties. However it is preferable that the scholars and the pious do not join in the funeral prayer for them as a punishment for them and deterrent for others like them. It was the practice of the Prophet (SAW) not to pray for those who committed major sins, although he did allow others to do so. [Muslim, vol.2, p.464, #2133]
  4. Debtors – In the beginning ,the Prophet(SAW) refused to lead the funeral prayer for those who died leaving behind debts and no means to pay them. This was done to emphasize the importance of clearing one’s debts from the charity (sadaqah) which he received. [Muslim, vol.3,.855, #3944]
  5. Burial without Salaah – It is allowable to perform the funeral prayer by the grave of someone who was buried without having salaatul-janaazah performed for him. [Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.192, #339, p.228, #407, Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p.453,# 2084]
  6. Salaatul-Ghaa’ib – If someone dies in a country or situation where there is no one to perform the salaatal-janaazah for him,it is permitted for a group of muslims to make a funeral prayer for him in his absence.This prayer is known as salaatul-ghaa’ib. [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2,p.191# 337]
  7. Disbelievers – The performance of funeral prayers or even seeking forgiveness or mercy for those who die in open disbelief or nifaaq (subtle disbelief) is strictly forbidden,based on the following instruction of Allah in the Qur’an:
    • “Never pray for any of them who die, and do not stand by their graves, for verily they have disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger and died in sin. [Surah at-Tawbah(9):84; Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2,pp.201-2,#359; Sahih Muslim,vol.4,pp.1456-7,# 6680; Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.6,p.158,#197]

The Jamaa’ah (Congregation):

  1. In Congregation – Salaatul-janaazah, like the five daily compulsary prayers,must be performed in congregation.This was the only way that the Prophet (SAW) and his companions did it. The Prophet (SAW) was also reported to have said,”Pray as you saw me pray.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.1,p.345,# 604]
    • The only exception to this rule was in the case of the funeral prayer for the Prophet(SAW), in which the Prophets(SAW) companions seem to have all prayed seperately due to the uniqeness of the situation and their state of confusion at the time. [Al-Bidaayah wa an-Nihaayah, vol.5, pp.304-5]
  2. Three Rows – It is preferable that those behind the imaam form at least three rows, as this was the Sunnah when the number of worshippers was insufficient to fill the masjid.
    • “Any muslim who dies and three rows of muslims make salah for him, will be forgiven.”[Ahkaamul-Janaaiz, p.99, with support of the following Hadith: Dawud, vol.2, p.899, #3160]
  3. Two Men – If there is only one man besides the imaam, he should pray behind the imaam and not beside him as he would in the case of all other salaahs. [Collected by al-Bayhaqee,al-Haakim, and at-Tabaraanee and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz,p.100]
  4. The Imaam – The ameer or his assistant has more right to lead the funeral prayer than the deceased’s walee. If neither the ameer nor his representative is present, the one who has the most knowledge of Al-Qur’an should lead the funeral prayer, even if he is a child. Knowledge is not just memorization, but that which benefits. [Collected by al-Bayhaqee and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz,pp.100-01; Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.5,pp.413-4,# 595]
  5. A Number of Dead – If there are a number of dead people, a single salaatul-janaazah can be made for all of them. However if there are males and females,the female bodies are placed in front of the imaam and the males behind the imaam even if they are young children. [Collected by an-Nasaa'ee(1:280),al-Bayhaqee(4:33) and ad-Daaraqutnee(194),and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz,p.103]

Location of Prayer:

  1. Inside the Masjid – The common practice today of holding the funeral prayer inside the masjid is based on the occasional practice of the Prophet (SAW). [See Sahih Muslim ,vol.2,pp.460-1,# 2124]
  2. Outside the Masjid – It is however, preferable to have a place (musallaa) set aside for the funeral prayer outside the masjid, as this was the usual practice of the Prophet(SAW). [See Sahih Bukhari, vol.2,p.191, #337, Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p.452,#2077]
  3. Between the Graves
    • It is forbidden for salaatul-janaazah to be said for the dead between the graves, according to the following hadeeth narrated by Anas ibn Maalik,in which he said:
    • “The Prophet(SAW)forbade the performance of the salaah for the dead in between the graves.” [Collected by at-Tabaraanee and authenticated in ahkaamul-Janaa'iz, p.108, #72]

The Method Of Prayer:

  1. Position of The ImaamThe imaam should stand, facing the qiblah, behind the head of the dead man and behind the middle of the dead woman. [Sunan Abu Dawud,vol.2,pp.907-8,# 3188 authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood,vol.2,p.615,# 2735]
  2. Number of TakbeersIt is possible to do either four, five, six, seven or nine takbeers, as all of them are recorded in authentic hadeeths and acts of the Prophets companions.
    • Four Takbeers: – Abu Hurayrah related that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) announced the Najaashee’s death on the same day which he died and went out with them to a place designated for large congregational prayers.He arranged them in rows and pronounced four takbeers during the funeral prayer. [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2,p.227,# 404; Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p.452,#2077]
    • Five Takbeers: Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Abee Laylaa said,”Zayd ibn Arqam used to make four takbeers on our dead,but once he made five ,so we asked him about it. He replied,”Allah’s Messenger(SAW) used to do it.” [Sahih Muslim,vol.2,pp.453-4,# 2089]
    • Six Takbeers: Abd Khayr said Alee ibn Abee Taalib used to make six takbeers [when he led funeral prayers] on those who took part in the Battle of Badr, five takbeers on the [rest of the] Prophet’s companions, and four takbeers on all the rest of the people. [Collected by al-Bayhaqee and ad-Daaraqutnee and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz, p.113]
    • Seven Takbeers: Musaa, the son of Abdullaah ibn Yazeed, said that Alee ibn Abee Taalib made the funeral prayer using seven takbeers for Aboo Qataadah, who was among those who took part in the Battle of badr. [Collected by al-Bayhaqee and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz, pp.113-4]
    • Nine Takbeers: Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr reported that the Prophet(SAW) made the funeral prayer for Hamzah using nine takbeers. [Collected by at-Tahaawee and at-Tabaraanee and authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz, p.114]
  3. Raising the Hands - It is permissable to either raise one’s hands with each takbeer,or to do so only for the first takbeer. [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2,p.228,chapter 55]
  4. Placing the Hands – The right hand should be placed on the left on the chest, as in regular prayer, since there are no authentic hadeeths to indicate otherwise. [Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.1. pp.396-7, #707]
  5. Recitation – Immediately after the first takbeer,the chapter al-Faatihah should be read,as recorded in authentic hadeeths.The only thing which should be read prior to the Faatihah is the “Refuge” and the “basmalah.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2,p.236,#419; Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.1,p.397,# 710; Sahih Muslim,vol.1,p.219,#786]
  6. Prayer for the Prophet (SAW) – Immediately after the second takbeer, the prayer for the Prophet (SAW) should be made according to one of the various patterns used in regular salaah. [Saheeh Sunan an-Nasaa'ee,vol.2,p.428,# 1880; Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.4,p.385,# 589]
  7. Du’aa for the Dead – After each of the remaining two or more takbeers, sincere prayers should be made for the dead,their relatives and the living. Nothing from the Qur’an should be recited following these remaining takbeers. [Daawood, vol.2, pp.616-7, #2740]
  8. Tasleem – There are two ways by which the closing greetings of the funeral prayer may be given[Collected by al-Bayhaqee and at-Tabaraanee, authenticated in Ahkaamul-Janaa'iz, p.127, # 83]:
    • either by tasleeming to the right side only, as in Abu Hurayrah’s hadeeth;
    • or by saying; tasleem to both sides, as in Ibn Mas’ood’s hadeeth;

 

Forbidden Times:

There are three times in the day when salaatul-janaazah or any other salaah is strictly forbidden except in the case of an emergency. These are the times during which the sun worshippers used to perform their rites of worship.Thus ,these became forbidden times in order to avoid any resemblance to them and to prevent non-muslims from thinking that muslims might also be worshipping the sun.

Uqbah ibn Amir said, “There are three times in which the Messenger of Allah(SAW) used to forbid us from making salaah or burying our dead:

  1. When the sun is rising until [the disc of the sun] is clearly above the horizon.
  2. When the sun reaches the middle of the sky until it declines.
  3. When the sun is setting until it [completely] disappears.” [Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p.395,# 1811 & p.906 # 3186]

 


The Burial

Injunctions Regarding Burial:

  1. Burying Everyone – Muslims are obliged to bury everyone who dies in areas under their jurisdiction.
  2. Muslims Buried Seperately – Muslims should not be buried beside non-muslims, nor non-muslims beside muslims; each should have their own seperate graveyard.
  3. Burial in the Graveyard – It was the Prophet’s (SAW) Sunnah to bury the dead in the graveyard of Madinah, known as al-Baqee. [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2,p.156,# 280]
  4. Depth of the Grave – The grave should be dug deep and wide, and be well-prepared. [Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.425, #1560]
  5. Shape of the Grave – The grave may be dug straight down (shaqq) with a burial chamber in the middle or with a niche (lahd) to create the burial chamber on the side. However, in both cases, a burial chamber is created from the earth, and sealed with bricks of unbaked clay. Both methods were practiced in the time of the Prophet(SAW). However, the Prophet(SAW) favored the lahd style. [Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, p.423, #1557]
  6. Number of Bodies in a grave – Two or more bodies may be buried in the same grave.This may be due to the large number of dead resulting from a natural calamity or plague,or dead may be from the same family. [Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.239, #427]

Injunctions Concerning Placing The Body In The Grave:

  1. Men and Not Women – It is preferable that only men should be responsible for placing the dead body inside the grave, even if the dead person is a woman. This is due to the fact that it has been the custom among muslims from the time of the Prophet(SAW) until today. The process requires a certain amount of strength, and men are generally stronger than women.
  2. Near Relatives – The blood relatives of the dead have more right to place the body in the grave,based on the general meaning of the following Qur’anic verse:
    • “Blood relatives have more right to one another in Allah’s scripture.”- Chapter al-Anfaal(8):75
    • The Husband is permitted to place his wife in the grave on condition that he did not have sexual relations with his wife the previous night. [Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.238, #426]
  3. Feet First – It is preferable that the body be placed in the niche feet first. This was the recorded way of the Prophet(SAW).
  4. On the Right Side – Place the dead body in the grave on its right side with the face of the dead person towards towards the qiblah (makkah).
  5. Du’aa – At the time of inserting the body in the grave, those handling the procedure are recommended to make one of the following short prayers:
    • Ibn’Umar said,”Whenever the Prophet(SAW)placed a dead person in his grave,he would say,”In the name of Allah,and according to the way(Sunnah)of the Messenger of Allah.[Sunan Ibn-i-Majah, vol.2, pp.419-20, #1150 authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah,vol.1,p.259,#1260]
  6. Throwing Dirt on the Grave – It is recommended for those near the grave to throw three double-handfuls of dirt into the grave after the burial chamber has been sealed.

 


After Burial

 

  1. Raising the grave – It is that the earth of the grave be slightly raised, no more than a palm’s width, so as to be higher than the surrounding ground. This is in order that it be easily distinguishable and not disrespected. In time the raised portion will naturally shrink as the earth settles.
  2. Marking the Grave – Placing a stone or something similar, without inscriptions, to identify the location of the grave is also from the Sunnah, the marker will help people later locate the grave in order to bury other family members in the same vicinity.
  3. Structures over Graves – The building of any kind of structures over graves is strictly prohibited.[Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.459, #2116]
  4. Du’aa – On the completion of the burial,it is recommended that those present at the grave-site offer prayers on behalf of the deceased. [authenticated in Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood, vol.2, p.620, #2758]
    • The prayers of other muslims on behalf of the dead will benefit the dead,by the permission of Allah. “The prayer of a muslim for his muslim brother in his absence will be answered. As long as he prays for the good of his brother,there is an angel assigned near his head who says:Amen,and may the same be for you.” [Sahih Muslim,vol.4,p.1429,#6590]
  5. Fasting - Fasts missed by dead persons may be done on their behalf by their close relatives.The fasts may be from Ramadan or from oaths(nathar).
    • Aishah quoted Allah’s Messenger(SAW) as saying ,”Whoever died owing fasts,his guardian should fast on his behalf.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.3,p.99,#173 and Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p.556,# 2553]
  6. Planting Twigs on Graves – It is not permissable to plant any flowers or twigs on the grave. The placing of wreaths and flowers is a non-muslim ritual. The companions of the Prophet(SAW)and the early generation of muslim scholars did not practice this ritual. It is however, authentically narrated that the Prophet(SAW)did, on one single occasion, stick a palm leaf in a grave. [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2.pp.249-50,# 443 and Sahih Muslim,vol.1,pp.171-2,# 575]
  7. Annual Visits to Graves – Visiting graves on the anniversary of a person’s death,or at the time of special annual festivals of the deceased is forbidden. Also, setting out on journeys to visit graves was specifically forbidden by the Prophet (SAW). This practice forms the basis of idolatrous pilgrimages in other religions. [Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.1,p.157,#281,Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p.699,#3218]
  8. Recitation of Qur’aan – There is no basis for the recitation of Qur’aan in the graveyard. Neither the Faatihah (first chapter) nor any other chapter of the Qur’aan should be read near the graves.
  9. Visiting Non-Muslim Graves – Although participation in the funeral rites of non-muslims is not permitted,muslims are allowed to visit the graves of disbelievers for reflection.However,praying for those who die in a state of disbelief is totally prohibited.
    • Whether you (O Muhammad SAW) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not forgiveness for them … (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness … Allâh will not forgive them, because they have disbelieved in Allâh and His Messenger (MuhammadSAW). And Allâh guides not those people who are Fâsiqûn (rebellious, disobedient to Allâh).[The Noble Qur'an 9:80]
    • And never (O Muhammad ) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allâh and His Messenger, and died while they were Fâsiqûn (rebellious, – disobedient to Allâh and His Messenger ). [The Noble Qur'an 9:84]
    • Prophet Muhammad  was prevented by Allah from praying for his own mother at her funeral, because she and his father had died as polytheists. [Sahih Muslim,vol.2,p.463,#2130]
  10. The Charity Of Children – Parents will benefit from whatever righteous deeds their children do,without decreasing the reward of their children’s good deeds.A righteous child is considered to be part of the parent’s earnings. [Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.2, p.1002, #3521. Sahih Muslim,vol.3,p.866,#4002 and Sahih Al-Bukhari,vol.2,p.266,#470]

 


Visiting Graves

Visiting graves is recommended in Islaam in order to help the living reflect on the shortness of this life and the closeness of the next. [See Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.463, #2131]

Women Visiting Graves…

The recommendation to visit graves is general and includes women, just as the earlier prohibition included them without any special mention. Furthermore, women share in the benefits of visiting the graves.

When the Prophet(SAW)found a woman crying in the graveyard, he did not chase her out of the graveyard, but told her not to cry. Anas ibn Maalik related that once the Prophet (SAW) passed by a woman crying beside a grave and said to her, “Fear Allah and be patient.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.208, #372; Sahih Muslim, vol.2, p.439, #2013]

After mentioning this hadith under the heading Visiting Graves, Ibn Hajar said: The [scholars] disagreed regarding women [visiting graves]. The majority held that they are included in the general permission for visiting graves [if there is no danger of corruption]. The ruling permitting women to visit graves is supported by hadith. The source of evidence in the hadith is the fact that he(SAW) did not censure the woman for sitting beside the grave, and whatever he approves is proof [of it's permissibility]. [Fat-hul-Baaree, vol.4, p.244]

However, frequent visitation of graves by women is not permissable. Hassaan ibn Thaabit narrated that allah’s Messenger (SAW) cursed women who frequently visit graves.

Perhaps the reason for not frequenting the graves is the possible negative results of such visits like:

  1. The loss of some of their husband’s rights due to their frequent absences from the home,
  2. The unnecessary public exposure of women,
  3. Increased depression leading to wailing and other forbidden expressions of grief.

 


Speaking about the Deceased

 

Insha’Allah, there is punishment to the deceased when you speak ill off them at the time of the funeral. This does not mean that the deceased person hears you speaking ill or well of them.

Bukhari 2.449, Narrated Abu Al Aswad, r.a.
I came to Medina when an epidemic had broken out. While I was sitting with ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab a funeral procession passed by and the people praised the deceased. ‘Umar said, “It has been affirmed to him.” And another funeral procession passed by and the people praised the deceased. ‘Umar said, “It has been affirmed to him.” A third (funeral procession) passed by and the people spoke badly of the deceased. He said, “It has been affirmed to him.” I (Abu Al-Aswad) asked, “O chief of the believers! What has been affirmed?” He replied, “I said the same as the Prophet had said, that is: if four persons testify the piety of a Muslim, Allah will grant him Paradise.” We asked, “If three persons testify his piety?” He (the Prophet) replied, “Even three.” Then we asked, “If two?” He replied, “Even two.” We did not ask him regarding one witness.

Bukhari 2.448, Narrated Anas bin Malik, r.a.
A funeral procession passed and the people praised the deceased. The Prophet saaws said, “It has been affirmed to him.” Then another funeral procession passed and the people spoke badly of the deceased. The Prophet said, “It has been affirmed to him”. ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab asked (Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) ), “What has been affirmed?” He replied, “You praised this, so Paradise has been affirmed to him; and you spoke badly of this, so Hell has been affirmed to him. You people are Allah’s witnesses on earth.”


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